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本帖最后由 景观教程精选 于 2019-9-24 09:31 编辑

生态设计仅仅是有效的适应自然,并与自然循环过程互相结合。
"Eco-design is only an effective way to adapt to nature and integrate with the natural circulation process."
——Sim Van der RynStuart Cowan

对于“渝北铜锣山矿山规划项目——自然的修复Nature’s Healing”荣获2019 ASLA Potomac 分析规划类专业奖, 这份荣誉像枚沉甸甸的勋章,让每一位项目参与者心中都倍感欣喜和荣耀。As for the "Nature's Healing, the Mine Planning Project of Tongluo Mountain in Yubei", won the 2019 ASLA Potomac Professional Award for Analysis and Planning, this honor is like a heavy medal, which makes every DONEHOME people feel delighted and honored.ASLA是景观界公认最具影响力、最权威、最高的荣誉,历届ASLA专业奖的获奖项目,都是某个领域的荣誉代表。ASLA is recognized as the most influential, authoritative and highest honor in the landscape field. The award-winning projects of previous ASLA analysis and planning professional awards are honorary representatives in a certain field.
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大地的伤疤|
Scar of the Earth

大面积裸露的岩石,与绿色的原生地形成了强烈的反差一个个采石场,如同大地上的一个个巨大伤疤The large area of bare rock is in sharp contrast with the green native landOne quarry after another, like giant scars on the earth
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项目现场,拍摄于2018年秋




项目简述| Project Brief
作为距离中国重庆中央商务区 15 英里范围内隐藏的自然宝藏,铜锣山矿山山谷是一个受到无管制采石破坏的占地约 6000 英亩的历史遗迹,它的遗迹价值在于它是一个受到工业和环境侵蚀的雄伟山谷,长达60 年的采石活动将农田和林地蚕食得支离破碎,遗留了大量的大型采石场和腐败区。
A treasure hidden within 15 miles from Chongqing CBD, the TongLuoShan Quarry Park valley is 6,000 acres of land damaged by unregulated stone extraction. Its legacy is one of a place, once a majestic valley, devastated by industry and environmental encroachment. 60 years of quarrying have scraped and chiseled farmland and woodland into large quarries and spoils areas
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● 场地思考|Site Thinking

大自然给我们土地、空气、水资源…..让万物得以繁衍生息,它是一个生命体,有着令人惊叹的力量。Nature has given us land, air and water resources ... to allow all things to flourish. It is a living body with amazing power.○ 面对这片疮痍满目的土地,我们应该提出怎样的规划构想?○ 是改造?是重建?还是大兴土木将过去的伤疤用粗放的方式全部掩盖?○ 我们是否应该为子孙后代的生存权利及资源,贡献我们的心力?○ 我们该如何建立有效且永续使用,修复以及补充天然环境资源的长期策略?Facing this devastated land, what kind of planning idea should we propose?Transformation? Reconstruction? Or massive construction to cover up all the scars of the past in an extensive way?Should we contribute our efforts to the survival rights and resources of future generations?
How can we establish long-term strategies for effective and sustainable use, restoration and replenishment of natural environmental resources?

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作为景观从业者,怀着对自然的敬畏,我们应该对生命有着更深刻的洞察力,以恢复与自然万物的链接和平衡。我们在规划和修复的过程就是在自然界中利用系统的资源,找到最适宜的途径,让自然环境告诉我们该怎么做,从而建立人与自然相协调共生的关系。As landscape practitioners, with reverence for nature, we should have a deeper insight into life to restore the link and balance with all things in nature. The process of planning and restoration is to use the resources of the system in nature to find the most suitable way for the natural environment to tell us what to do, so as to establish a harmonious and symbiotic relationship between man and nature.

● 确定规划设计策略|Determine Planning and Design Strategies

项目初期的构想,是最重要、最具挑战的阶段,思路一次次被推翻,被打破。回想本案规划构想的过程,是一场回归,是重新恢复与自然界链接的过程。更是源于作为景观规划设计师这份职业本能召唤的使然。
The initial concept of the project is the most important and challenging stage. The idea has been overturned and broken over and over again. Looking back on the process of planning and conceiving this case, it is a return and a process of restoring links with nature. It is due to the calling of professional instinct as a landscape designer.

● 规划设计策略|Planning and Design Strategies
生态修复——通过最低影响的干预手段促进被破坏场地创伤修复,从而建立永续发展环境。Ecological Restoration——Promote the restoration of devastated lands by using low  intervention means, to create a  sustainable development environment.




挑战|Challenges
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   探索|Explore  
● 数据的高效采集与应用|Efficient Data Collection and Application
面对高达5930英亩的场地, 首先面临的挑战是如何在短时间之内建立一个行之有效的数据收集和分析的方式。
Facing the 5,930-acre site, the first challenge is to establish an effective way of data collection and analysis in a short time.
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在此,项目前期我们同数地景观团队共同协作,采取无人机技术采集并处理数据,全三维实景模型的引入让我们对场地进行更加全面细致的了解 。其中运用到的离散数据对场地各方面的分析结合参数化编程技术以及GIS数据库,实现在较短时间内跨学科的整合及应用。Here, in the early stage of the project, we worked together with Paramland teams to collect and process data using UAV technology. The introduction of full three-dimensional scene model enables us to have a more comprehensive and detailed understanding of the site. Among them, the analysis of various aspects of the site by using discrete data combined with parametric programming technology and GIS database realizes interdisciplinary integration and application in a short period of time.针对如此体量的项目,传统的数据采集时间过长,且不够直观;相比于传统的数据调研,我们是从点状到全局、模糊到精确,从抽象到直观。因此这种新的技术对于设计规划项目前期场地数据的获取具有非凡的价值和意义。
For such a large project, the traditional data acquition time is too long and not intuitive enough. Compared with traditional data research, we are from point to global, fuzzy to accurate, abstract to intuitive. Therefore, this new process is of great value and significance for the acquisition of site data in the early stage of design and planning projects.

根据创新的航空,高分辨率数字正交立面建模技术对于场地的实时分析,结合基于GIS的数据库和三维测量模型可以生成高精度的计算机模拟模型,用于分析场地的地表径流及汇水面。According to the innovative aerial and high-resolution digital orthogonal elevation modeling technology for real-time analysis of site, combined with GIS-based database and three-dimensional measurement model, a high-precision computer simulation model can be generated to analyze the surface runoff and catchment surface of the site.

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● 生境恢复:植物修复|Habitats Restorationlants Restoration

[size=13.3333px]在确定 “生境恢复”的生态修复策略方向下,如何实现修复目标,帮助其落地是我们面临的第二个挑战。Under the direction of ecological restoration strategy of "habitat restoration", how to realize the restoration goal and help it land is the second challenge we are facing.
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[size=13.3333px]通过收集大量实践项目的技术研究及场地实验, 团队探索出一套适合这个场地的修复策略——即运用本地物种对破坏了的土地进行修复。

[size=13.3333px]By collecting a large number of technical studies and site experiments of practical projects, the team has explored a set of restoration strategies suitable for the site, that is, using local species to restore the damaged land.[size=13.3333px]
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[size=13.3333px]○ 第一阶段:利用苔藓作为先驱植物[size=13.3333px]○ [size=13.3333px]Phase I: Using mosses as pioneer plants
苔藓作为先驱植物以加速整个破坏地区的生态系统的重新建立。
[size=13.3333px]Moss as a pioneer plant to accelerate the re-establishment of ecosystems in the whole destroyed area.
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我们研究大量国内外文献和实践:苔藓及其相关生物的繁殖能够有效加速将因为矿石开采而受损的区域恢复到正常的自然过程,同时其具有稳定生态系统状态和促进生物多样性的特点。除此之外,苔藓作为繁殖需水量最少的植物,具有成本低,维护少,并且不需要优良的土壤质量来生长的卓越特点,是最为有效且经济的矿石开采区修复植物,它一般生长在裸露的石壁上,或潮湿的森林和沼泽地,许多苔藓植物都能够分泌一种液体,这种液体可以缓慢地溶解岩石表面,加速岩石的风化,促成土壤的形成,因此苔藓植物也是其他植物生长的开路先锋。
[size=13.3333px]We have studied a large number of domestic and foreign literatures and practices: reproduction of moss and related organisms can effectively accelerate the restoration of land damaged due to ore mining to normal natural processes, while it has the characteristics of stabilizing the ecosystem state and promoting biodiversity. In addition, moss, as a plant with the least water requirement for reproduction, has the advantages of low cost, low maintenance and no need for good soil quality to grow. It is the most effective and economical plant for restoration in ore mining areas. It generally grows on bare rock walls, or wet forests and marshlands. and many mosses are planted. Mosses are also pioneers in the growth of other plants because they can secrete a liquid that slowly dissolves rock surfaces, accelerates rock weathering and promotes soil formation.
苔藓植物大多个体矮小,多喜匍匐生长, 缺乏管束组织,没有真正的根系系统,所以无法直接从土壤获取水分,在修复初期进行人为性的干预,利用化合物对贫瘠土壤的处理以提高其保水性, 阶段性的使用雾喷及灌溉手段,以提高修复苔藓的存活率。
[size=13.3333px]Most mosses are short, prone to creep growth, lack of vascular tissues and no real root system, so they cannot directly get water from the soil. Artificial intervention should be carried out at the initial stage of restoration. Compounds should be used to treat barren soil to improve its water retention. Fog spraying and irrigation should be used periodically to improve the survival rate of restoration of mosses.[size=13.3333px]○ 第二阶段:建立过渡性湿地类型的生态系统[size=13.3333px][size=13.3333px]○ [size=13.3333px]Phase I[size=13.3333px]I[size=13.3333px]: [size=13.3333px]Establish transitional wetland ecosystem在苔藓生态系统的基础上,通过引入当地的草类植物及水生植物,建立过渡性的草原及湿地类型的生态系统。
On the basis of bryophyte ecosystem, a transitional grassland and wetland ecosystem is established by introducing local grass plants and aquatic plants.[size=13.3333px]○ 第三阶段:建立无需人为灌溉的林地生态系统[size=13.3333px][size=13.3333px][size=13.3333px]○ Phase Ⅲ: Establish a forest ecosystem without artificial irrigation
根据航空高分辨率数字正交立面建模技术对于场地的实时分析,结合基于GIS的数据库和三维测量模型可以生成高精度的计算机模拟模型, 选定具有建立林地生态系统潜力的区域。从而达到从贫瘠的的荒地修复为林地、湿地及苔藓共生的健康生态系统。
According to the real-time analysis of the site by aviation high-resolution digital orthogonal elevation modeling technology, combined with GIS-based database and three-dimensional measurement model, a high precision computer simulation model can be generated, and an area with the potential of establishing a forest land ecosystem is selected.Thus, a healthy ecosystem can be restored from barren wasteland to forest, wetland and moss coexist.

● 建立可持续的生态系统|Build Sustainable Eco-systems

场地自然条件限制以及由于人为活动带来的破坏性影响,导致在可靠、清洁的水资源获取方面面临着重大的挑战。The limitations of natural conditions and the destructive influence brought by human activities on the site,led to major challenges in obtaining reliable and clean water resources.

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服务于整体的可持续性生态策略, 我们提出了额外水源进行补充。利用地表水资源并潜入附近水库、河流,以补充可用的现场资源。同时,建立水的整合性资源管理系统,其中包含雨洪收集系统、建设生态沟、雨水花园,以此对灰水及黑水进行净化处理及重复利用,以实现场地水资源的补充,解决在生态修复过程中缺水的问题。
In order to serve the overall sustainable ecological strategy, we have proposed additional water sources to supplement. Utilize surface water resources and dive into nearby reservoirs and rivers to supplement available on-site resources. At the same time, an integrated water resource management system is established, which includes a rainwater and flood collection system, ecological ditches and rainwater gardens, so as to purify grey water and black water and reuse them, so as to supplement the site water resources and solve the problem of water shortage in the process of ecological restoration.

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通过场地的计算机模型的模拟及计算,选定合适的建筑用于改造及设施安置点。引入太阳能光伏板及风能装置,为居民及社区提供可持续性的补充性电力,同时, 由于所处地区天气湿润,湿度较高, 雾水收集装置在春夏及秋季能够收集空气中的雾水, 以补充场地的缺水状况。Through the simulation and calculation of the computer model of the site, the appropriate building is selected for the reconstruction and installation site. Solar photovoltaic panels and wind energy devices are introduced to provide sustainable supplementary power for residents and communities. At the same time, due to the humid weather and high humidity in the area, fog water collection devices can collect fog water in the air in spring, summer and autumn to supplement the lack of water in the site.
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△ 现在、3年、6年、12年……
Now, three years, six years, twelve years……


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展望|Future
在目前快速城市化的进程中,不适宜的土地利用开发和工程建设使得大地生命机体的结构和功能受到严重的摧残, 生物栖息地备受侵犯和割裂,生态环境日趋恶化。
Nowadays, in the process of rapid urbanization, inappropriate land use development and engineering construction have severely damaged the structure and function of the living organisms on the earth, encroached and fragmented biological habitats, and deteriorated the ecological environment day by day.
我们在项目规划中应避免对自然系统造成更多的人为干预破坏, 留出空间让自然做工,恢复增强自然系统的自我调节能力,重新构建人与城市、自然,和谐共生永续发展的关系,健全的环境塑造与自然环境的互利共生,也是我们设计企业责无旁贷的使命。In the project planning, we should avoid causing more human interference and destruction to the natural system, leave room for natural work, restore and enhance the self-regulating ability of the natural system, rebuild the relationship between human and city, nature, harmonious coexistence and sustainable development, and build a sound environment and mutually beneficial coexistence with the natural environment, which is also our duty-bound mission of design enterprises.
“该项目的总体规划是一个长达十年的大胆修复计划,它创新性的提出了一种解决相似的采石场遗迹问题的模式。"The master-plan proposes an aggressive, 10 year reclamation strategy for the valley and is a national model for other quarry projects facing similar challenges."— 2019 Potomac ASLA评委会
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2019 ASLA Potomac分析规划类专业奖的获得,对于我们来说,是荣誉,是使命,更是前进的动力,它驱使着我们勤勉不懈的在景观规划设计领域有更深入的思考,不断探索新的设计方法和规划定律。
The 2019 ASLA Potomac Award for Analytical Planning is an honor, a mission and a driving force for us to move forward. It drives us to think more deeply in the field of landscape planning and design diligently and tirelessly, and to constantly explore new design methods and planning laws.最后借此再次向所有为此项目付出的团队表示最衷心的感谢,这是道合团队的荣耀。
Finally,We would like to take this opportunity to once again express our heartfelt thanks to all the teams who have contributed to this project, which is the honor of the Done Home team.
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项目主创团队:道合研发中心
项目协作团队:数地景观  道合设计中心
项目顾问团队:西南大学园林景观规划设计研究院Interface Engineering, Inc.

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道合荣获2019 Potomac ASLA(大华盛顿区)分析规划类专业奖

以上图片、内容版权均来自道合景观
本文转自道合景观(ID:donehome
原文链接https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/M6bGyWLWreSleTTJU86e0w


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